18 August 2016
The Evershed effect 2.12.2008
The Evershed effect, named after the British astronomer John Evershed, is the radial flow of gas across the photospheric surface of the penumbra of sunspots from the inner border with the umbra towards the outer edge.
The speed varies from around 1 km/s at the border between the umbra and the penumbra to a maximum of around double this in the middle of the penumbra and falls off to zero at the outer edge of the penumbra. Evershed first detected this phenomenon in January 1909, whilst working at the Kodaikanal Solar Observatory in India, when he found that the spectral lines of sunspots showed doppler shift.